Chicago, IL, August 19, 2011 -- Consider this nightmare: Each night millions of women toss and turn and try to get to sleep but can’t because of hormonal hot flashes, night sweats and chills. Add to that the women who can’t sleep because of aches and pains, sore muscles and stress and you’ve got a lot of women starting their days on the proverbial wrong side of the bed. Our sluggish economy is not helping either...people are stressed out! Now, thanks to science and Mother Nature, there’s a non- prescription, non-hormonal way for women to get a good night’s sleep: Goodnighties Recovery Sleepwear with patented IonX® fabric. Goodnighties (www.goodnighties.com) is the first and only sleepwear that offers the restorative benefit of ionization in a moisture-wicking fabric that also reduces night sweats and hot flashes. Goodnighties users swear that changing jammies has changed their lives and to compare to a new fancy mattress --- it's good value too!
IonX: Research, Racehorses, Rest & Recovery Goodnighties sleepwear is made with revolutionary IonX fabric that is scientifically proven to restore muscles, reduce pain, balance the body and bring relief to women who suffer from the effects of night sweats and hot flashes. -more- GOODNIGHTIES—Add One Ionized daywear has long been used by the medical field, professional and Olympic athletes, the military and NASA because of its proven healing, pain blocking and performance enhancing properties. Even racehorses have experienced these benefits in the form of blankets and leg wraps. “The power of negative ions has long been known. But now for the first time, women will be able to experience the positive effects negative ions have on well being,” said leading scientist Albert B. Ouimet, PhD, MBA, who was part of the original team creating the IonX patent. “Women who wear Goodnighties with IonX achieve better, deeper, more comfortable sleep so they awaken feeling refreshed and recharged,” said Dr. Ouimet. IonX is a patented process to build restorative negative ions into the structure of the fabric. Positive ions are the ions that bombard our world from things like pollution, computers and TV. Positive ions make people feel tired, depressed and irritable. Conversely, negative ions are the kind found in nature in places like beaches, waterfalls and forests. Negative ions give people a sense of well-being. Through decades of research, scientists discovered that exposing skin tissue to negative ions helps balance and counteract the effects of positive ions. The IonX fabric in Goodnighties has more than 20 times the level of negative ions found anywhere in nature. Negative ions help increase the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the muscles and activate body chemicals that improve muscle function, increase metabolic properties of tissues and help block pain. In addition, IonX® fabric offers superior moisture-wicking properties that help women feel more comfortable during sleep even when suffering from hormonal temperature fluctuations.
Fixing the Broken Internal Thermostat and Other Benefits of a Goodnightie There are 60,871,000 women in the U.S. between the ages of 35-64, many who endure hormonal fluctuations which of that number, 85 percent are known to suffer night sweats from medication, illness or symptoms of menopause. As one Goodnighties fan explains, “I hadn’t had a good night’s sleep in years. I was hot, then cold, then sweating…..it just seemed like my internal thermostat was broken. Just by sleeping in Goodnighties I went from no sleep to a peaceful, dry sleep, these jammies have been a dream come true for me and everyone who is around me!” In addition to those suffering from temperature irregularities, the rejuvenating, superior moisture-wicking benefits of Goodnighties offer rest, recovery and restoration for many people including: • Women experiencing hormonal changes (infertility treatments, post-partum, peri-menopause, menopause) • Active people, regular exercisers and weekend warriors with sore, tired muscles • People with aches and pains due to injury, surgery, chemotherapy, etc. • Those suffering from painful health issues like fibromyalgia, arthritis and diabetes Styles and Availability Goodnighties nightwear is available online at www.goodnighties.com and will also be available soon in specialty catalogs and through television shopping networks. Goodnighties sleepwear is designed in eight different styles (XS to 3X) that coordinate or mix with six dreamy colors. Also unique to Goodnighties® is the ability to mix and match colors, sizes and styles.
About the Company With 35+ years of sales, marketing and manufacturing experience, David Bacon is an expert in technical fabrics. Interested in the benefits of ionization, David encouraged his wife Marcia to try IonX fabric to help her recover after several surgeries. To their delight, Marcia experienced a quicker recovery and more rested feeling while wearing the ionized fabric. Inspired by the results, the Bacons began to develop a softer, more comfortable ionized fabric that would be perfect for recovery sleepwear. After years of testing and design, they created the Goodnighties revolutionary line of sleepwear. The Bacons continue to be dedicated to improving the sleep of people everywhere and always appreciate input for product improvement. In fact, at the request of their many customers - a men's line will be coming soon! “We take great pride that Goodnighties products are 100% manufactured in the USA” said Marcia Bacon. For More Information Contact: Sarah Baldwin, Goodnighties, VP of Marketing 847-341-0459. GOODNIGHTIES, INC. Here's the Science! ALL ABOUT IONX!
THE BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF IONX® Fabrics and Garments Via the Patented process of treating fabric with negatively charged Ions
(Note: Bold Numbers in parentheses in the text of this Paper are cross references to the various works in the Bibliography following this Paper and refer to exact pages and passages in that reference material. Although such exact page references are given, each work referred to is support and substantiation, in its entirety, for the Claims made in this Paper).
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON HOT FLASHES AND NIGHT SWEATS: Garments, and particularly Goodnighties sleepwear, treated with the IONX® negatively charged ionic finish, bring relief to women who suffer from the effects of night sweats and hot flashes. One property of this finish is the ability to wick moisture away from the body. It does this through the capillary action of the treated fibers. A woman wearing sleepwear treated with will feel more comfortable as the “clammy” feeling due to perspiration trapped against the skin will be removed due to moisture transport away from the body and through the sleepwear fabric. This will result in a better sleep state and the individual will awake feeling fresher and more relaxed. Additional benefits fall under the next heading. (1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10)
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS ON SLEEP AND WELL BEING: Goodnighties will markedly improve sleep, sleep patterns and thereby a person’s general well being and mood state. (11,12,13,14,15,16,19,23,24,26,71,) A study was conducted at Nara Women’s University in Nara, Japan to determine whether negative ions generated from pajamas would influence the rectal temperature and the immune system during night sleep. It was determined that rectal temperature fell significantly during night sleep with the subjects wearing the negatively ionized pajamas. “These results suggest that the rectal temperature could possibly be more reduced and the elevation of salivary immunoglobin A (IgA) more marked if the pajamas with negative air ions are worn during nocturnal sleep.” The result would be a deeper, more restful sleep.(20)
What is sleep and what role does sleep play in our daily lives? Sleep is a natural state of bodily rest seen throughout the animal kingdom. Initially it was thought that we needed sleep for our bodies but recent studies have shown that it is our brain that actually derives benefits from sleep. While we sleep, cells are regenerated and repaired Sleep disorders have become a major problem in North America. Thirty one percent of all drivers have fallen asleep at the wheel at least once in their lifetime. Approximately 42% of adults in North America suffer from insomnia each week. Many people’s depression can be attributed to lack of a good night’s sleep.(71,72,73)
Negatively charged ions can and do have a major role to play in the effect they have on sleep. Ions are positively or negatively charged atoms or molecules that are formed when enough energy acts on a molecule such as water to eject an electron. A molecule which loses an electron is positively charged and a molecule which attracts an electron is negatively charged.
There are a number of beneficial effects that negatively charged ions have on sleep. “Negative ions increase the flow of oxygen to the brain; resulting in higher alertness, 2.
decreased drowsiness and more mental energy,” says Pierce J. Howard, PhD, author of the Owners Manual for the Brain: Everyday Applications. (63) The ability to increase blood and oxygen flow to the brain can have a profound effect on sleep patterns and the results of a better sleep will be awaking at a higher state of alertness and more energy.(24,64,65,71) Negative ions also protect against germs in the air. These germs are positively charged so the negative ions neutralize and kill the germs. Bed sheets and pillowcases treated with negative ions can be considered hypoallergenic. Back in the 1930s, a Russian team, headed by A.L. Tchijevski found that large ion doses of negative ions killed bacteria at a rate of 78% per minute. (25,28,37,38,39,40,41,42,43,44,52,54,55,56,57,58,67,68,70,72)
Drs. M Terman and JS Terman at Columbia University studied the effect of negative ions on seasonal affective disorder (SAD). They concluded that negative ions promote alpha brain waves and increase brain wave amplitude, which translates to a higher awareness level. Negative ion induced alpha brain waves were found to spread evenly across the right and left brain hemispheres. All of this creates an overall calming effect and will help us enter sleep quickly and reach the REM (rapid eye movement) state more quickly. (17)
At the pace of today’s society, most people make every effort just to keep on moving, despite illness or ill feelings. The source of much of this illness is positive charged ions which are the by-products of combustion, chemical fumes from synthetic building materials, carpeting and paints, air pollution from automobile exhausts and factory smoke. Exposure to these hazardous ions can have a severe effect on the cardiovascular system, sleeplessness, respiratory problems, headaches, nausea, dizziness, anxiety, depression and irritability.
Negative ions can affect the levels of serotonin, a hormone which is manufactured in our brains. It is a neurotransmitter involved in the transmission of nerve impulses. Serotonin helps maintain a “happy feeling” and helps keep our moods under control by helping with sleep. Low serotonin levels in our brains are believed to be the reason for cases of mild to moderate depression which can lead to symptoms of anxiety, apathy, fear, insomnia and fatigue. When the brain produces serotonin, tension is eased. Serotonin helps us in a number of ways by: Strengthening the functions of the autonomic nerves Reinforcing collagen tissue Improving the permeability of the cell’s plasma membranes Improving metabolism Strengthening the body’s immune system
Another hormone which is affected by negative ions and which has a profound effect on sleep is melatonin. Melatonin is synthesized from serotonin. It is a naturally occurring hormone in mammals as well as other animals and plants as well. It is produced by the pineal gland located in the brain. Melatonin helps regulate our circadian cycle by chemically causing drowsiness which helps in getting us to sleep. Melatonin has several powerful functions: It acts as a synchronizer of our biological clocks, thus helping us sleep It may exert a strong antioxidant activity It can absorb harmful free radicals 3.
It will stimulate the immune system.(27,33,59,61,62) Wound healing has been shown to be affected by sleep. A study conducted in 2004 and reported in Neuroscience shows that sleep depravation hindered the healing of burns.(29,30,53,69)
Negative ions have been shown to reduce swelling by reducing intercellular activity, increase blood as well as lymphatic circulation, relieve pain and restore joint mobility, restore the pH balance by promoting an alkaline reaction in the cells, improve the quality of sleep by giving you a more restful night’s sleep. With good, restorative sleep, all of these benefits can be achieved by the interaction of negative ions. With quality sleep, cells are repaired, the immune system is strengthened and mental functions are sharpened. Quality sleep can also help reduce the occurrence of common pains such as backache, and increase your resistance to illness. A study conducted in France in 2004 found that negative ions helped people sleep better by regulating the production of chemicals in the brain.(16,50,51,73)
When the body’s natural balance is interrupted by chemical change, reaction to outside stimuli, mood swings, etc., there is a shift in electrolytes and in the body’s own natural ions such as potassium, sodium, magnesium and calcium which aid in maintaining wellness. These effect the functioning of the hypothalamus gland which regulates body functions, one of which is sleep. Negative ions can help shift the natural occurring ions in the body, increase blood flow, help remove toxins from the bloodstream through perspiration, resulting in a deeper more relaxing sleep. Reduced serotonin levels from stress and lack of sleep and exercise can bring on such things as irritability, depression, aggression, chronic pain, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and arthritis, to name a few. Negative ions can help regulate sleep patterns, thus improving our body’s ability to fight off some of the above mentioned ailments. (21,31,32,34,35,36,44,45,46,47,48,49,60)
J.F. Lambert and J.M. Olivereau at the University of Paris in France conducted a study of the effects of positively and negatively charged ions on sleep patterns in lab mice in 1986. The study concluded that positively charged ions caused a disturbed sleep with a decrease in slow wave sleep which is most effective for physical restoration. Conversely, negatively charged ions improved sleep patterns and lead to a more restive sleep. (22,76)
It is estimated that there are normally 1,500 to 4,000 ions per cubic centimeter in the air. Negative ions are exceedingly mobile and the Earth’s surface has a negative charge, therefore, negative ions are repelled from the surface. These negative ions are very beneficial. It is impossible to overdose on negative ions. The more negative ions we are exposed to, the better and more uplifted we feel. Positively charged ions can cause irritability, sleeplessness, headaches, hot flashes and sweating. This becomes more apparent the older we get.
AVERAGE IONS PER CUBIC CENTIMETER
Positive ions are present in pollutants and allergens. Some elderly people may experience difficulty in breathing, feel joint pain, experience sleeplessness or insomnia and a generally tired and “rundown” feeling. Negative ions can help reduce these feelings by neutralizing the positive ions and removing them from the environment. Positive ions can cause women before the age of menopause to complain of hot flashes and sweats or chills. All this happens from the stimulation of serotonin secretion by being exposed to high concentrations of positively charged ions. Negative ions can help experience a normalization of activities of the endocrine glands, which plays an important role in reducing the effects of stress.(11,15,24,44)
Albert B. Ouimet, BS, MBA, PhD Member: American Association of Textile Chemists & Colorists (AATCC), American Chemical Society (ACS), American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), American delegate to ISO.
SEE PATENT INFORMATION ATTACHED
Patent: IONIZED PERFORMANCE FABRIC
International Patent Number: WO 2006/042055 A2 International Publication Date: 20 April 2006 International Patent Classification: C11D 17/04 (2006.01) Priority Data: 60/616,999 8 October 2004
Abstract: A composition for treating fabrics includes about 0.1 to about 10.0% cross linking agent, about 0.1 to about 5% polyolefin, about 0.1 to about 0.5% wetting agent, about 1.0 to about 8.0 amino functional silicone, about 1.0 to about 6% ionizing agent, about 1.0 to about 2% catalyst and any remainder as carrier. The composition has a pH of between about 2.0 to about 4.0 and at least some amino functional silicone and/or ionizing agent is provided.
The present invention claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application serial number 60/616,999 filed on 8 October 2004.
The present invention relates generally to the clothing field and, more particularly, to specialty garments, surgical masks, bandages and tapes and compositions for treating those fabrics and products. The compositions are also useful in treating medical wraps and domestic fabrics such as sheeting, pillowcases, bed coverings and throws.
The present invention relates to specialty and clothes such as shirts, pants, socks, underwear and undergarments, sweaters, coats, gloves, mittens, shoes, hats and other head wear. Individuals wearing clothing, bandages, wraps and/or tapes constructed from the specialty fabric of the present invention against their skin have observed substantial increases in oxygen levels in the bloodstream, circulation and muscle recovery, static and dynamic endurance, performance, speed, quickness and reaction time. A person sleeping on mattress covers, sheets and pillowcases containing this treatment will enjoy a deeper, more relaxing sleep and awake feeling more rested.
REFERENCES, NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following references and bibliography all support and substantiate the claims made in the body of this paper
1. Mechanisms of Transient Moisture Transport Between Fabrics, M. Adler, W.Walsh, School of Textiles, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, Textile Research Journal, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp 334-335, 1984 “A technique was developed to study moisture transport and to determine the mechanism by which moisture is transported between fabrics under transient conditions at low moisture contents. A variety of fabrics were tested and experiments were performed at various levels of moisture content from 3% to over 100% above regain. Vapor diffusion was the major mechanism of moisture transport between two layers of fabric at low moisture levels for all fabrics. Wicking did not begin until the moisture content was high, more than 30% above regain for the woven samples. The knitted samples did not wick at all. Hydrophilic finished polyester samples had markedly improved transport rates at high moisture contents but showed no improvements at low levels of moisture where vapor diffusion prevails. Moisture transport appears to be closely related to comfort. At low moisture levels, fabrics rated as comfortable transported more moisture than fabrics rated as uncomfortable. Polyester fabric to which a hydrophilic finish was applied to improve moisture transport by wicking was judged similar in comfort to the unfinished polyester. Both transport little moisture at low levels of moisture content, perhaps because at low levels of moisture content, wicking cannot occur, since there is an insufficient amount of moisture to fill the capillaries to permit wicking.“ 2. The Interaction of Water with Fabrics, R.M. Crow, R.J. Osczevski, Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, North York, Ontario, Canada., Textile Research Journal, Vol. 68, No. 4, pp 280-288, 1998
“This study examines the interaction between water and a range of fabrics because of claims that synthetic fibers such as polypropylene do not pick up moisture and so when made into active wear, leave the wearer warm and dry. We have found that all fiber types, when made into fabrics, pick up water, with a strong correlation between a fabric's thickness and the amount of water it picks up freely expressed in absolute terms rather than percent of its mass. We have also found that properties relevant to clothing on an exercising person, such as drying time and energy required to evaporate water from under and through a dry fabric or dry a wet fabric, depend on the amount of water the fabric picks up, not fiber type. The amount of water wicked from one layer to another depends on pore sizes and their corresponding volumes. These results are supported by manikin and human subject experiments.”
3. Cotton Fibers as a Means of Transmitting Water Vapor, L. Fourt, R.A. Craig, M.B. Rutherford, Harris Research Laboratories, Washington, D.C., Textile Research Journal, Vol. 27, No. 5, pp 362-368, 1957 “The water vapor transmission of fibers can be measured independent of any air space surrounding the fibers, by using sections cut from embedments of the fibers in polyacrylic resins. The rate of water vapor transmission, measured as the diffusion constant, is larger for cotton than for rayon, wool, nylon, or Dacron. The respective diffusion con stants are on the order of 134. 56. 39, 8 and 7 x 10 4 cm.2 sec., under the relatively moist conditions of the tests, between 54 and 93% relative humidity. While the possible influence of air in the lumen of cotton has not been completely evaluated, there is evidence that such influence has been reduced if not eliminated. How , ever, this same evidence indicates that the cotton fibers were in part in an altered condition as a result of the embedment. Even so, the results suggest that cotton is a good choice of fiber for high water vapor transmission along the fiber. “ 4. Dynamic Surface Wetness of Fabrics in Relation to Clothing Comfort, D.M. Scheurell, S.M. Spivak, N.R.S. Hollies, Department of Textiles and Consumer Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, Textile Research Journal, Vol. 55, No., 7 pp 394-399, 1985 “Moisture from perspiration collects in and passes through clothing as worn, and the properties of clothing fabrics influence both the collection and passage of this moisture. The selection and measure of moisture properties that relate to comfort in wear has proved to be more difficult than first perceived. Dynamic surface wetness of fabrics has been found to correlate with skin contact comfort in wear for a variety of fabric types, suggesting that mobility of thin films of condensed moisture is an important element of wearing comfort. This paper discusses how dynamic surface wetness is measured and calibrated against color standards used in the measurement.” 5. Physical Factors Determining Comfort Performance in Textiles, W.H. Rees, Shirley Institute, 3rd seminar, Textiles in Comfort, 1971
“The remaining moisture (A) is calculated from the evaporated (E) and total driven (T) water to predict the sensation of clamminess after sweating. Results from surface roughness, contact area, and wet cling analysis show that softer yarns, finer fibers and twill weaves produce measurably smoother fabrics with small contact. Also, effects of hydrophilic fiber blending and wicking finishes on the moisture management properties are examined. The former does not affect the liquid moisture management properties while the latter measurably enhances the absorption rate. These results are discussed in relation to the wear comfort response in varying conditions of physical activity and ambient environments in Part II of this paper.’
6. Water Transport Mechanisms in Textile Materials, N.R.S. Hollies, M. Kaessinger, B.S. Watson, H. Bogaty, Harris Research Laboratories, Washington, D.C., Textile Research Journal, Vol. 27, No. 1, pp 8-13, 1957 “In view of the interest in the phenomenon of "wicking" in apparel fabrics made of synthetic fibers or of blends, a basic study of the mechanism of water transport in yarns and fabrics has been made. The movement of water along fabrics is shown to depend on the laws of capillary action. Because the rates of travel of water in many fabrics and in yarns from these fabrics are approximately equal, it is concluded that water is carried mainly in the capillaries formed by the fibers in the individual yarns. The speed of travel of water in these capillaries is readily reduced by the presence of randomly arranged fibers in the yarn, and it is this factor rather than the nature of the fiber mate rial which accounts for the wide range of water transport properties found in blended fabrics. The rates at which drops of water placed on the surface of such fabrics are absorbed also appear to depend on the same principles. However, for the fabrics that have been studied, these are considerably lower in magnitude than the rates for water travel within the fabrics. Since the water-holding capacities of fabrics made of different fiber materials in a similar construction are also similar, the amount of water carried by a fabric in a rate experiment depends mainly on the capillary laws which define the distance of travel in unit time. The rate of travel of water in a group of wool-type blended fabrics can be correlated with their thermal resistance properties, and both appear to depend on the arrangement of the individual fibers in the fabrics. Random arrangement of the fibers in the yarns leads to fabrics along which water travels slowly and which possess increased thermal insulation in the moist state. The water transport properties of fabrics in general provide useful information about fiber arrangement in fabrics and yarns, and it appears that the rather simple drop absorption technique for surface wetting can be conveniently used for this purpose in studying wool-type fabrics.” 7. Transfer Wicking Mechanism of Knitted Fabrics Used as Undergarments for Outdoor Activities, Q. Zhang, S.C. Harwick, D.B. Brook, Textile Research Journal, Vol. 28, No. 1, p 727, 2002 “This study investigates liquid transfer from fabric layer to layer and liquid interaction between different fabrics in clothing systems. A higher external pressure leads to an early onset of transfer wicking. There exists an optimum value of external pressure for the maximum water transfer. The greater the water content initially held in wet fabric, the greater the amount of water transferred. For fleece fabrics, no significant transfer wicking occurs if the raised side of the dry layer contacts either side of a wet fleece fabric layer. If the smooth side of the dry layer contacts either side of the wet fleece fabric layer, the amount of water transferred from layer to layer is greater when the fabric setting is face to face rather than face to back. An investigation of liquid interaction within clothing systems shows that the amount of liquid transferred largely depends on the performance of individual fabrics as well as the way in which they contact each other. Integrated double-sided Aquator fabrics, which serve as the first layer in the clothing system, transfer more liquid from the wet layer to the clothing system than other fabrics. Introducing a fleece fabric into the clothing system where the Aquator fabrics serve as the first layer promotes liquid transfer into the clothing system, but if polyester eyelet knit fabric serves as the first layer, introducing a fleece fabric decreases the amount of liquid transfer from the wet layer to the clothing system.” 8. Liquid Transport in Textile Structures, You-Lo-Hsieh, Textile Research Journal, p 299, 1995 “Liquid movement in any porous medium is driven by capillary action, which is governed by the liquid's properties, liquid-medium surface interaction, and geometric configurations of the pore structure in the medium. Pore structures of media, partic ularly fibrous materials, are complex and difficult to quantify. This paper discusses wetting and capillary theories and applications of these principles to the analysis of liquid wetting and transport in capillaries and fibrous materials. The derivations for external wetting contact angle and internal liquid transport are confirmed by micro balance measurements of glass capillaries and woven fabrics. The pore area responsible for liquid transport can be derived from mass transport data. This paper reports on the contribution of fiber surface properties and fabric pore structure to liquid transport and retention phenomena in 100% cotton and polyester fabrics.” 9. Wetting and Wicking, Erik Kissa, Textile Research Journal, pp 660-668, 1996 “The fundamentals of wetting and wicking are reviewed. Wetting is the displacement of a fiber-air interface with a fiber-liquid interface. Wicking is the spontaneous flow of a liquid in a porous substrate, driven by capillary forces. Because capillary forces are caused by wetting, wicking is a result of spontaneous wetting in a capillary system. Fiber wettability is therefore a prerequisite for the occurrence of wicking. The inter action of liquids with textile fabrics may involve one or several physical phenomena. On basis of the relative amount of liquid involved and the mode of the liquid-fabric contact, the wicking processes can be divided into two groups: wicking from an infinite liquid reservoir (immersion, transplanar wicking, and longitudinal wicking), and wicking from a finite (limited) liquid reservoir (a single drop wicking into a fabric). According to fiber-liquid interactions, each of the four wicking processes can be divided into four categories: capillary penetration only, simultaneous capillary penetration and imbibition by the fibers (diffusion of the liquid into the interior of the fibers), capillary penetration and adsorption of a surfactant on fibers, and simultaneous cap illary penetration, imbibition by the fibers, and adsorption of a surfactant on fibers. When designing tests to simulate liquid-textile interactions of a practical process, it is essential to understand the primary processes involved and their kinetics.” 10. Moisture Transmission Through Textiles, Brojeswari, Das; A Das; V.K. Kothari, R. Fangueiro and M de Araujo, Department of Textile Technology, India Institute of Technology, Delhi, India. Department of Textile Engineering, University of Minho, Guimaraes, Portugal, AVTEX Research Journal, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2007 “Comfort is a pleasant state of psychological, physiological and physical harmony between the human being and the environment. The processes involved in human comfort are physical, thermo-physiological, neuro-physiological and psychological. Thermo-physiological comfort is associated with the thermal balance of the human body, which strives to maintain a constant body core temperature of about 37C and a rise of fall of about +/- 5C can be fatal. Hypothermia and hyperthermia may result, respectively, due to the deficiency or excess of heat in the body, which is considered to be a significant factor in limiting work performance. In a regular atmospheric condition and during normal activity levels, the heat produced by the metabolism is liberated to the atmosphere by conduction, convection and radiation and the body perspires in vapor form to maintain the body temperature. However, at higher activity levels, and/or at higher atmospheric temperatures, the production of heat is very high and for the heat transmission from the skin to the atmosphere to decrease, the sweat glands are activated to produce liquid perspiration as well. The vapor form of perspiration is known as insensible perspiration and the liquid form as sensible perspiration. When the perspiration is transferred to the atmosphere, it carries heat (latent as well as sensible) thus reducing the body temperature. The fabric being worn should allow the perspiration to pass through, otherwise it will result in discomfort. The perception of discomfort in the active case depends on the degree of skin wetness. During sweating, if the clothing moisture transfer rate is slow, the relative and absolute humidity levels of the clothing microclimate will increase suppressing the evaporation of sweat. This will increase rectal and skin temperatures, resulting in heat stress.”
11. Air Ionization and Its Effects on Well Being and Stress and Its Biological Effects, Geo. W. K. King, The International Academy of Preventive Medicine, Fairmont Hotel, Dallas, Texas, March 10, 1979, pp 1-6 “Krueger demonstrated that atmospheric ions of both polarities exert a profound influence on the ciliary activity, mucus flow, and vulnerability to trauma of the living cells of the trachea. The effects of positive air ions are: · Reduction of the rate of ciliary beat, sometime progressing to complete stoppage, and a parallel reduction of the rate of mucus flow. · Contraction of the membranous posterior wall of the trachea. · Drying of mucosal surface. · Induction in the cilia of a state of vulnerability to trauma. Negative ions reverse the changes brought about by treatment with positive ions and increase ciliary activity and mucus flow above normal values. Krueger further postulated that positive air ions exert their physiologic effects by causing a local release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the trachea, while negative air ions exert an opposite effect by increasing the rate at which 5-HT is oxidized, probably through a cytochrome-linked reaction. A reduction of succinoxidase activity in the adrenal glands of rates exposed to positively ionized air has been observed. Negative ionization produced no noticeable changes in the alpha brain wave in a number of persons exposed to either positively or negatively ionized air have been seen. The "normalizing" effect of (-) has been stressed.2.3 Positively ionized air has produced occasional headaches, nasal obstruction, dryness of throat, dizziness, and itching nose. In the same subjects, the maximum breathing capacity was reduced with (+) but no appreciable difference was noted with (-). Psychologic studies showed that a majority of persons exposed to artificially ionized air reported pleasant feelings in a negatively ionized atmosphere. Under the positive condition, there was an increase in the proportion of reported unpleasant feelings, compared to the control conditions. Good therapeutic results in nasal and paranasal affections were obtained by using the Dessauer method of ion generation with negatively charged MgO submicroscopic particles.4 In a carefully conducted study in which tritium generators were used, it was found that negative ions increased work capacity, while positive air ions had no effect. In other experiments, it was observed that (-) increased the flicker fusion threshold, while (+) had the opposite effect Relief from symptoms of hay fever resulted in nearly 63 per cent of persons treated with (-). The improvement subsided shortly after the persons returned to a normal environment. Hay fever was aggravated by (+) in a significant number of patients. The distressing subjective symptoms accompanying attacks of bronchial asthma due to air-borne allergens were greatly improved by inhalation of negatively ionized air, but the usual auscultatory findings of rales and wheezing present before the exposure remained essentially undiminished. In these series, comprising a few hundred patients over a period of five years, no lasting after-effects were noted in persons exposed to (-), except occasional complaints of dryness of throat and nose, which subsided in a few minutes in the outdoor air. Forty per cent of patients with hay fever developed an increase in upper respiratory symptoms when subjected to inhalation of artificially produced positive air ions. Patients exposed to negative ions with reported no effect, or felt that they had some improvement. It is significant, however, that not one of these patients complained of feeling worse”” 12. Absence of Harmful Effects of Protracted Negative Air Ionization, F.G. Sulman, D. Levy, L. Lunken, Y. Pfeifer and E. Tal, International Journal of Biometeorolgy, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp 53-58, 1978
“The absence of harmful effects of protracted negative air ionisation was studied in 5 weather-sensitive women and 5 normal men chosen at random. Negative ions were generated by the Modulion of Amcor-Amron (Herzliya, Israel). The patients were exposed separately during 8 sleeping hours and 8 working hours to the apparatus at 1–2 m distance in a 4 × 4 m room, for 2 months. Thus they were exposed to a daily uptake of 1 × 104 negative ions/cm3 for 16 h/day during 2 months. Urinary 17-KS, 17-OH, adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion was not affected by the negative ionisation. However serotonin, 5-HIAA, histamine and thyroxine excretion — if increased before — diminished by 50% on an average. There were no changes in body weight, blood pressure, pulse, respiratory rate, oral morning temperature, dynamometer grip strength, routine liver function tests, urinary pH, albumen, glucose, ketones, bilirubin, or occult blood, red and white blood count and ECG records. The EEG revealed the typical changes due to negative air ionisation: stabilising of frequency, increased amplitudes, spreading of brainwaves from the perceptive occipital area to the conceptive frontal area and synchronisation of both hemisphere tracings.”
13. Air Ions and Their Relation to Human Comfort, C.Y. Shaw and G.T. Tamurea, National Research Council of Canada, Division of Building Research, Ottawa, Canada, pp 1-16, 1976 “Among the studies considered to have shown beneficial effects was one of individuals suffering from diseases of the respiratory tract; good therapeutic results were obtained with negative ions. In another, patients suffering from hay fever and asthma obtained temporary relief when exposed to negative ions, their symptoms recurring within a few minutes to 2 hours of their return to a normal environment. A study of the effect of negative ions on burn victims indicated marked improvement in the affected areas: relief from pain, reduction in malodour, and a somewhat shortened period of healing. In several other studies the administration of positive or negative ions produced no changes in physiological function or subjective sensation. In some, in which the physiological response to positive and negative ions did not differ greatly, subjective sensations were favourable with negative ions and unfavourable with positive ions, but the preference for negatively ionized air was not strong enough to suggest a significant improvement except for abnormal subjects. Ionized air, however, irrespective of sign, appeared to exert a normalizing influence upon physiological functions above or below the norm.” 14. Are Negative Ions Good For You?, Dr. Albert Kreuger, New Scientist, pp 663-665, 14 June 1975
“Of noticeable effect are the benefits of negative ions on health. Negative ions are able to stabilize blood pressure, increase resistance to disease, improve sleep, relieve migraines, strengthen bones, stabilize respiration, enhance heart function and quicken physical recovery. Further, negative ions have the ability to kill germs, which are often trapped in today’s air-tight buildings, providing relief from such ailments as allergies, sinusitis, respiratory infections, asthma, bacterial infections and viral illnesses.”
15. Negative Air Ions Stimulate Mitochondria, I.G. Stavrovskaia, T.V. Sirota, I.R. Saakian and M.N. Kondrashova, Institut. of Theoretical and Experimental Biophysics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia, Biofizika, Vol. 43, No. 5 pp 766-771, 1998
“The influence of negative air ions (NAI) was investigated under activation of animals by the administration of physiological doses of adrenaline. Hyperactivity of the rate of phosphorylating oxidation of succinic acid in liver and brain mitochondria was measured. Rate of respiration was also measured. It was found that the presence of NAI caused a decrease of phosphorylation efficiency. NAI inhalation diminished the rate of hyperactive respiration and abolished excessive Ca2+ accumulation. The adrenaline effect was abolished by the NAI. Some animals relaxed and some fell asleep.
16. Negative Ions Are beneficial to the Human Body in Four Ways, Economy Daily News, January 30, 2002, p 1, www.Detoxion.com
“Negative ions are beneficial to the human body in four ways: Strengthen the functions of autonomic nerves Reinforces collagen (tissues that are resilient and tension related) Improves the permeability of the cell’s prototype plasma membrane (improves metabolism) Strengthens the body’s immune system”
17. Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder with a High Output Negative Ionizer, M. Terman and J.S. Terman, Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York, N.Y., J Alter Complement Med, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp 87-92, 1995
The initial clinical trial by Drs. Michael and Jiuan Su Terman at Columbia focused on patients with seasonal affective disorder as they experienced major depressive episodes in winter. They found high density negative ions to be as effective as light therapy in the treatment of this disorder. The trial was performed in a true “randomized double blind study”. The negative ions promote alpha brain waves and increase brain wave amplitude, which translates to a higher awareness level. Negative ion induced alpha wave spread from the occipital area to the parietal and temporal and even reached the frontal lobes, spreading evenly across the right and left brain hemispheres. All of this creates an overall calming effect”
18. Negative Ion Regeneration for Youthfulness and Longevity, John Heinerman PhD, Journal of Alternative Medicine, April 2003, Section 2, p 1
“In general, exposure to negatively charged ions has been shown to increase oxygenation of the lungs, vital capacity and ciliary activity. All types of beneficial effects take place as a result of friendly negative ions. With negative ions, you will experience a normalization of the activities of the endocrine glands, which plays an important role in reducing the effects of stress. Brain wave studies show an increase in brain amplitude with better thinking ability, a shift of alpha activity to the frontal area of the brain for better conceptual ability, and a higher synchronization of right and left brain hemispheres for a more even balance of the personality. Your body undertakes a normalization of metabolism of vitamins and an increase in static nad dynamic work capacity and endurance.”
19. The Influence of Negative Air Ions on Human Performance and Mood, Human Factors, Vol. 5, pp 633-636, 1981
“Another direction, given evidence of psychological effects of negative ion exposure, is investigating interactions of psychological state and performance effects."Fornof & Gilbert (1988) reported that indoor air ion levels affect the reactions of children to stressors. Negative air ionisation increased physiological tolerance of stressors and reduced secondary effects of stress in behaviour and performance. Improvement in conceptualisation and attention span coincided with the indicators of reduced stress. They concluded that their observations could not be attributed to noxious and toxic chemicals commonly produced with corona air ion formation. Their results confirmed that people of different sympathetic nervous system reactivity respond differently to air ion levels. Autonomic nervous system stability was apparently improved. In a 1984 review Kellogg reports work by various authors on the clinical use of air ions, especially in the treatment of burns and asthma. For example, Kornblueh et al (1958) found that negative air ions, but not positive air ions, afforded relief from hay fever. Kornblueh (1968) has found that burn victims reported cessation of pain and early formation of eschars after exposure to negative air ions. These effects were confirmed by others. Inbar et al (1982) have reported that negative air ions improved cardiovascular and thermoregulatory system function in men performing a bicycle exercise trial in a hot (40oC) environment. Heart rate, body temperature and perceived exertion were all reduced.” 20. A Preliminary Study on Influence of Negative Ions Generated from Pajamas on Core Body Temperature and Salivary IgA During Night Sleep, T. Wakamura, M. Sato, A. Sato, T. Dohi, K. Ozaki, N. Asou, S. Hagat and H. Tokura, Nara Women’s University, Nara, Japan, International Journal of Occupational Medical Environmental Health, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp 295-298, 2004 21. Controlled Trial of Bright Light and Negative Air Ions for Chronic Depression, Namni Goel, Michael Terman, Jiuan Su Terman, Mariana M. Macchi and Jonathan W. Stewart, Psychological Medicine, Vol. 35, pp 1-11, 2005, Cambridge University Press
“This randomized controlled trial investigates the efficacy of two non-pharmacologic treatments, bright light and high-density negative air ions for non-seasonal chronic depression. Both methods have shown clinical success for seasonal affective disorder (SAD). METHOD: Patients were 24 (75%) women and 8 (25%) men, ages 22-65 years (mean age +/- S.D., 43.7 +/- 12.4 years), with Major Depressive Disorder, Single Episode (DSM-IV code, 296.2), Chronic (episode duration > or = 2 years). Patients were entered throughout the year and randomly assigned to exposure to bright light (10 000 lux, n = 10), or high-density (4.5 x 10(14) ions/s flow rate, n = 12) or low-density (1.7 x 10(11) ions/s, n = 10, placebo control) negative air ions. Home treatment sessions occurred for 1 h upon awakening for 5 weeks. Blinded raters assessed symptom severity weekly with the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale--Seasonal Affective Disorder (SIGH-SAD) version. Evening saliva samples were obtained before and after treatment for ascertainment of circadian melatonin rhythm phase. RESULTS: SIGH-SAD score improvement was 53.7% for bright light and 51.1% for high-density ions v. 17.0% for low-density ions. Remission rates were 50%, 50% and 0% respectively. The presence or severity of atypical symptoms did not predict response to either treatment modality, nor were phase advances to light associated with positive response. CONCLUSIONS: Both bright light and negative air ions are effective for treatment of chronic depression. Remission rates are similar to those for SAD, but without a seasonal dependency or apparent mediation by circadian rhythm phase shifts. Combination treatment with antidepressant drugs may further enhance clinical response.”
22. Effects of Previous Aeroionization on Consecutive Waking and Sleeping Phases in Rats, J.F. Lambert and J.M. Olivereau, Laboratoire de Phychobiologie Environmentale, Universite’ Paris, V 106, quai de Clichy, Clichy, France, 29 April 1986
“The investigation showed that positive and negative air ions have opposite general effects on the structure of sleep in rats. When submitted to positive air ions, the animals consecutively exhibited during sleep an EEG with increased amplitude and lowered frequency. This decrease in vigilance level is nevertheless accompanied by obvious signs of a disturbed sleep, that is: more polyphasic sleep and decrease of slow wave sleep which is the most efficient for physical restoration. The generally opposite action of negative air ions is consistent with their effects descrbed by other authors who have studied human sleep after aeroiontherapy.”
23. Air Purification Effect of Positively and Negatively Charged Ions Generated by Discharge Plasma at Atmospheric Pressure, Kazuo Nishikawa and Hideo Nojima, Appliance Systems Product Development Laboratories, Sharp Corporation, Yao, Japan, Japan Journal of Applied Physics, May 14, 2001
“In this paper, the air purification effect of positively and negatively charged ions generated by discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure is reported. We have developed a novel ion generation device which consists of a cylindrical glass tube and attached inner and outer mesh electrodes. With the application of AC voltage between the electrodes, positively charged ions and negatively charged ions have been generated at atmospheric pressure. The ion densities of 3.0×104–7.0×104 counts/cm3 have been obtained with the AC voltage of 1.8–2.3 kV (effective value). We have examined the air purification properties of this device. By the operation of this device, the initial oxygen nitride (NO) density of 10 ppm in 1 m3 (in cigarette smoke) was decreased to 1 ppm after 30 min. The number of suspended germs in air has been significantly reduced by the use of this type of ion generation device.”
24. There’s something in the air that just may boost your mood – get a whiff of negative ions, WebMD Feature, May 6, 2002, p 1 “There's something in the air and while it may not be love, some say it's the next best thing -- negative ions. Negative ions are odorless, tasteless, and invisible molecules that we inhale in abundance in certain environments. Think mountains, waterfalls, and beaches. Once they reach our bloodstream, negative ions are believed to produce biochemical reactions that increase levels of the mood chemical serotonin, helping to alleviate depression, relieve stress, and boost our daytime energy.” 25. Biological Effects of Small Air Ions, a Review of Findings and Methods, J. Charry, Vol. 34, pp 351-389, 1984 A wide variety of effects of exposure to small air ions have been reported, but these are difficult to evaluate because of limitations in experimental design and control. These limitations are discussed, and trends in the literature are reviewed. It is concluded that small air ions are likely to have biological effects, that these effects may be related to polarity, and that where effects occur they are likely to be small in magnitude and difficult to detect reliably.” 26. The influence of air ions, temperature and humidity on subjective well-being and comfort, L. Hawkins, Journal of Environmental Psychology, Vol. 1, pp 279-292, 1981 There are many benefits of Negative Ions stemming from the fact that negative ions attach themselves to airborne particles such as dust, pollen, smoke and dander, causing them to drop from the air. Because the air is free of these allergens, many people notice that it is easier to breathe. For more information on negative ions and the benefits of negative ions to our health, the following information is presented: Negative Ion Studies Studies Proving the Effectiveness of Negative Ion Generators, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture - A recent study by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture found that ionizing a room led to 52% less dust in the air, and 95% less bacteria in the air (since many of the pollutants found in the air reside on floating dust particles). The U.S.D.A. also performed another study to test the effectiveness of negative ionization at removing airborne Salmonella Enteritidis. The negative ions drastically reduced the airborne salmonella 27. Influence of serotonin on the immune response, J. Jackson et al, Immunology, Vol. 54, pp 505-512, 1985 The present study investigates the influence of pharmacological agents known to regulate biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter, serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) on the primary antibody response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in the CBA mouse. Systemic administration of 5-HT (4-100 mg/kg) or its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP, 50-400 mg/kg), 30-60 min before immunization resulted in dose-dependent suppression of both the IgM and IgG plaque-forming cell (PFC) response to SRBC. Conversely, para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 250 mg/kg), which inhibits the rate-limiting enzyme (tryptophan hydroxylase) in 5-HT biosynthesis, markedly enhanced IgM and IgG antibody production when injected 48 hr prior to antigen. Effects of these drugs on immune processes appeared independent of observed changes in plasma corticosterone levels. Further, immune function was preserved following selective depletion of brain serotonin through intracisternal injection of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) in mice pretreated with desmethylimipramine (DMI). Thus, immunomodulation by serotonin appears to be mediated via peripheral mechanism(s).
28. Effects of air ions on microorganisms and other biological materials, S. Kotaka, CRC Critical reviews in Microbiology, Vol. 6, pp 109-149, 1978
Ionization of the air is a natural phenomenon. The ion density varies according to terrestrial and atmospheric conditions: radioactivity, barometric pressure, humidity, season, time of day, air movement, precipitation, altitude, intensity of ultra-violet and cosmic radiations, or air pollution. An ion is a molecule or a small group of molecules that become electrically charged when gaining or losing an electron. The addition of an electron produces a negative ion (-) while loss of an electron converts it to a positive (+) one. Nature provides a delicate balance of ions. The relatively low natural ion levels do not permit systematic evaluation of their biologic properties. A different medium must be artificially created in laboratory and clinical experiments to permit such investigations. Only with the help of ion generators capable of producing unipolar ions in controlled concentrations can this goal be achieved. In medicine, the main interest centers on the effects of artificially created, and not on natural ion levels Negative ions reverse the changes brought about by treatment with positive ions and increase ciliary activity and mucus flow above normal values. Krueger further postulated that positive air ions exert their physiologic effects by causing a local release of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the trachea, while negative air ions exert an opposite effect by increasing the rate at which 5-HT is oxidized, probably through a cytochrome-linked reaction. A reduction of succinoxidase activity in the adrenal glands of rates exposed to positively ionized air has been observed. Negative ionization produced no noticeable changes in the alpha brain wave in a number of persons exposed to either positively or negatively ionized air have been seen. The "normalizing" effect of (-) has been stressed.2.3 Positively ionized air has produced occasional headaches, nasal obstruction, dryness of throat, dizziness, and itching nose. In the same subjects, the maximum breathing capacity was reduced with (+) but no appreciable difference was noted with (-). Psychologic studies showed that a majority of persons exposed to artificially ionized air reported pleasant feelings in a negatively ionized atmosphere. Under the positive condition, there was an increase in the proportion of reported unpleasant feelings, compared to the control conditions. Good therapeutic results in nasal and paranasal affections were obtained by using the Dessauer method of ion generation with negatively charged MgO submicroscopic particles. 29. Artificial ionization of the Air and Its Biological Significance, Igho Hart Kornblueh, Clinical Medicine, Vol. 69, number 8 Controlled use of negative ion emitters has proved to benefit individuals suffering from air-borne allergies of the upper respiratory tract. If properly harnessed, controlled, and utilized, ionized air may become a valuable adjunct to other established methods of treatment in a number of disease states. 30. Influence of Ions on Certain Physiological Functions, A.P. Kreuger, W.W. Hicks and J.C. Beckett, Medical Biometeorology, S.W. Trump (ed), Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, pp 351-369, 1963
Although not statistically significant, being exposed to negative air-ions seems also to reduce total sweat rate and minute ventilation (VE), and to increase O2 pulse. It is suggested that under the conditions of this study negative air ions canimprove various cardiovascular and thermoregulatory functions as well as subjective feelings during physical effort. It is felt that such positive influences may be augmented by increasing the exposure time to negative ionized air and/or prolonging the stressful conditions.
31. The Role of Ions in Body Chemistry, Negative Ion Report, The CBS Nightly News, February 14, 1995, pp 1-2 The harmful positive ion (kation) is a particle that loses an electron. The healthful negative ion (anion) gains an electron in the valency orbit; that is it increases the ability to absorb and utilise oxygen and reduces any excess of harmful serotonin.These two small invisible electrified particles have an effect on our physical and mental well-being and we are constantly bombarded with negative and positive ions eg. polluted air. The negative ions make us feel good, they destroy harmful bacteria. The positive ions make us feel bad (TV. screen produces positive ions). If the positive ions occur naturally in sufficient numbers, for instance during the onset of the commonly known hot and dry desert winds, the winds cause depression, nausea, insomnia, irritability, lassitude, migraine, asthma attacks, and also affect the normal function of the thyroid glands. Biochemically speaking, the body becomes exhausted and this can lead to an increase in accidents, violent crime and suicides. These can be counteracted with the beneficial negative ions.The negative ions contribute to the feeling of well being. They reduce the number of active harmful bacteria in the air; the severity of illness; in general they have a stimulating effect also on plant growth like rainwater, which has an abundant source of negative ions. For instance, a shower will re-ionise and has a tonic effect on the body, just like rainwater which clears the air.Therefore the surroundings of a water-fall, fountains, showers and the breaking surf of sea spray have a much more stimulating effect on the body and mind. Remember that emotional stress produces serotonin. According to Dr Irving Oyle, serotonin is "the ultimate downer" while norepinephrine is the "ultimate upper". 32. How Aerosol Chemtrails Effect Atmospheric Ions, www.tripod.com, pp 2-5
Nikola Tesla experimented with electromagnetic flux and studied the earth's gravitational field. During his research he discovered that the ionization of the atmosphere would alter when it was charged by radio wave transmissions in the low frequency range of 10 to 80 hertz. Tesla also discovered that he could cause both positive and negative ionization of the atmosphere by manipulating the radio frequency. Further studies indicated that with positive ionization, people and animals became tired and lethargic and with negative ionization the effect was one of feeling active and energetic. It can be manipulated. Ions are floating in the air around us all of the time and have either negative or positive charged on them. Changes in their concentrations or in the ratio of positively to negatively charged molecules can have remarkable effects on plants and animals. It is known in science that ion depletion is the source of a wide range of human health problems, both mental and physical. These air ions are important to you because if they have a high proportion of negative ions in the clusters you will feel lively, uplifted and enthusiastic. Too many positive ions in the clusters will have you feeling depressed, lethargic and full of aches, pains and complaints.
33. Systematic review and guide to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, J.G. Edwards, I. Anderson, Drugs, Vol. 57, pp 507-533, 1999 A meta-analysis of 20 short term comparative studies of 5 selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs; citalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine and sertraline) has shown no difference in efficacy between individual compounds but a slower onset of action of fluoxetine. There were suggestions that fluoxetine caused more agitation, weight loss and dermatological reactions than the other SSRIs. More patients discontinued fluvoxamine and fewer patients stopped sertraline because of adverse effects than their comparator SSRIs. The most common adverse reactions to the SSRIs were gastrointestinal (especially nausea) and neuropsychiatric (particularly headache and tremor). Data from the Committee on Safety of Medicines showed more reports of suspected reactions (including discontinuation reactions) to paroxetine, and of gastrointestinal reactions to fluvoxamine and paroxetine, than the other SSRIs during their first 2 years of marketing. Prescription-event monitoring revealed a higher incidence of adverse events related to fluvoxamine than its comparators.
34. Canterbury IonX Garment: A Physiological Evaluation, Authors: Ashley Gray, Joe Santry, Dr. Tom Waller, Dr. Mike Caine, 15 January 2006, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK, p 5
The influence of positive (cation) and negative (anion) ions on human physiology has been studied sine the 1930s and yet consensus on their effects remains unclear, with few well controlled studies existing on the literature base. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of negative ions, via IonX® garments, on a wide range of physiological performance and recovery parameters. It was found that average peak power output was significantly higher when the IonX® garment was worn in comparison to the control garment. Across the entire study, this equates to a 2.7% increase in performance.
35. Increased Oxygenation in Transcutaneous Oxygen and in Blood Oxygen, Dr. Christopher M. Proulx, Georgetown College, Georgetown, KY. 2006, p 1
Significant increases in oxygenation delivered by the introduction of an IonX® treated garment or therapeutic wrap is resulting in: Increased oxygen levels in the bloodstream Increased circulation – wounds heal faster Increases in static and dynamic endurance – enhanced performance – an athlete competing/being active at high intensity levels for longer periods of time Rapid recovery of muscular fatigue in athletes.
36. Shifts in Cellular Ionic Magnesium and Calcium in Function of Muscle Contraction and Recovery, Dr. Chris Proulx, Georgetown College, Georgetown,KY. 2006, p 1
A shift in the balance of magnesium and calcium, and increased oxygenation delivered by the introduction of an IonX® treated garment or therapeutic wrap is improving muscle contraction, increasing the metabolic properties of affected tissues and is subsequently reducing inflammation and pain.
37. Effect of Ionization on Microbial Air Pollution in the Dental Clinic, J. Gabbay, Environmental Research, Vol. 52, No. 1, p 99, 1990 The use of spray-producing instruments in the dental clinic continuously creates a potentially harmful contamination of the room environment. In the present study a 13.5-kV corona discharge ionizing generator was used in order to investigate the effect of ions on the microbial air pollution of the dental clinic. Samples of microbial air population were collected in 9-cm-diameter plates containing either Bacto-Brain Heart Infusion Agar or Bacto-Mitis Salivarius Agar and exposed to different time periods in various locations of an active dental clinic. Microbial air levels in the dental clinic were significantly reduced with the generator (by 40-50%). The data suggest that the ioniz